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2020全国英语等级考试:英语动名词和分词用法

发布时间:2020-10-28 16:47:10 来源:网络 阅读量:

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2020全国英语等级考试:英语动名词和分词用法

在英语中,不作句子谓语,而具有除谓语外其他语法功能的动词,叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词有动词不定式;动名词和分词。分词又包括现在分词和过去分词。

一、非谓语动词与谓语动词的不同点有:

1. 非谓语动词由于不能用作谓语,因而没有语法上的主语,但它往往有逻辑上的主语。如:

How can I get to know her? 我怎么能认识她呢?(不定式to know 的逻辑主语是 I )

The boss ordered them to start the work.(动词不定式的逻辑主语是them)

I can’t bear him staying up so late. 我不能忍受他这么晚睡。

(动名词 staying up 的逻辑主语是 him)

We being League member, the work was well done.(现在分词的逻辑主语是We)

Who is that speaking? 您是哪一位?(现在分词的逻辑主语是 that)

They plan further talks with interested parties on this question.

他们就此问题打算与有关各方进一步谈判。(过去分词interested parties 的逻辑主语是 parties)

2. 非谓语动词可以有形容词作用(如动词不定式和分词),在句中做定语、表语或宾语补足语。非谓语动词短语往往可以转化成各种从句。如:

The man standing there is our English teacher. The man who is standing there is our English teacher. 站在那儿的那个人是我们的英语教师。(现在分词短语转化为定语从句)

3. 非谓语动词可以有名词作用(如动词不定式和动名词),在句中做主语、宾语、表语。

The foreign guests hope to join the National Day celebration of Beijing. The foreign guests hope that they can join the National Day celebration of Beijing.

外宾希望参加北京的国庆庆祝会。(不定式短语转化为宾语从句)

I regret being unable to help. I regret that I cannot help.

我感到抱歉,不能帮助你。(动名词短语转化为宾语从句)

4.非谓语动词可以有副词作用(如动词不定式和分词),在句中作状语。

非谓语动词在句子中能够做的成分:

二、非谓语动词用法:

(一)动名词:

动名词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有名词的句法功能。

1、动名词的形式:

Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。(一般式)

He came to the party without being invited.他未被邀请就来到了晚会。(被动式)

We remembered having seen the film. 我们记得看过这部电影。(完成式)

He forgot having been taken to Guangzhou when he was five years old.

他忘记五岁时曾被带到广州去过。(完成被动式)

I regret not following his advice. 我后悔没听他的劝告。(否定式)

2、动名词的句法功能:

1)作主语:

Collecting stamps is interesting. 集邮很有趣。

当动名词短语作主语时常用it作形式主语。

It’s no use crying. 哭是没用的。

2)作表语:动名词作表语,表示抽象的一般性的行为。

Our work is serving the people.我们的工作是为人民服务。

His hobby is collecting stamps.他的爱好是集邮。

3)作宾语:

They haven’t finished building the dam. 他们还没有建好大坝。

We have to prevent the air from being polluted.我们必须阻止空气被污染。

注意动名词既可作动词宾语也可作介词宾语,如上面两个例句。此外,动名词作宾语时,若跟有宾语补足语,则常用形式宾语it,例如:

We found it no good making fun of others. 我们发现取笑他人不好。

要记住如下动词及短语要跟动名词作宾语:

enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid(避免), excuse ,delay, imagine, keep, miss, consider,

admit(承认),deny(否认), mind, permit, forbid, practise, risk(冒险),

appreciate(感激), be busy, be worth, feel like, can’t stand, can’t help, think of,

dream of, be fond of, prevent…(from), keep …from, stop…(from), protect…from,

set about, be engaged in, spend…(in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to,

object to, pay attention to, insist on

4)作定语:

He can’t walk without a walking-stick. 他没有拐杖不能走路。

5)作同位语:

The cave, his hiding-place is secret. 那个山洞,他藏身的地方很秘密。

His habit, listening to the news on the radio remains unchanged.

他收听收音机新闻节目的习惯仍未改变。

(二)现在分词:

现在分词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有形容词和副词的句法功能。

1、现在分词的形式:

1)现在分词的主动语态:现在分词主动语态的一般式表示与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,完成式表示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生,常作状语。例如:

They went to the park, singing and talking. 他们边唱边说向公园走去。

Having done his homework, he played basketball. 做完作业,他开始打篮球。

2)现在分词的被动语态:一般式表示与谓语动词同时发生的被动的动作,完成式表示发生在谓语动词之前的被动的动作。

The problem being discussed is very important. 正在被讨论的问题很重要。

Having been told many times, the naughty boy made the same mistake.

被告诉了好几遍,这个淘气的孩子又犯了同一个错误。

2、现在分词的句法功能:

1)作定语:现在分词作定语,当分词单独做定语时,放在所修饰的名词前,如果是分词短语做定语放在名词后。

I like the book lying there.

In the following years he worked even harder. 在后来的几年中,他学习更努力了。

The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor’s father.

正与老师谈话的那个人是我们班长的父亲。

现在分词作定语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能,如:in the following years也可用in the years that followed, the man speaking 可改为the man who is speaking.

2)现在分词作表语:

The argument is very convincing.他的论点很令人信服。

The film being shown in the cinema is exciting. 正在这家上演的电影很棒。

The present situation is inspiring. 当前的形势鼓舞人心。

be + doing既可能表示现在进行时,也可能是现在分词做表语,它们的区别在于be + doing表示进行的动作是进行时,而表示特征时是系动词be与现在分词构成系表结构。

3)作宾语补足语:

如下动词后可跟现在分词作宾语补足语:

see, watch, hear, feel, find, get, keep, notice, observe, listen to, look at, leave,

catch等。例如:

Can you hear her singing the song in the next room? 你能听见她在隔壁唱歌吗?

He kept the car waiting at the gate. 他让小汽车在门口等着。

4)现在分词作状语:

A)作时间状语:

(While) Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker. 在工厂工作时,他是一名先进工人。

B)作原因状语:

Being a League member, he is always helping others. 由于是共青团员,他经常帮助他人。

C)作方式状语,表示伴随:

He stayed at home, cleaning and washing. 他呆在家里,又擦又洗。

D)作条件状语:

(If) Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time. 要是整天玩,你就会浪费宝贵的时间。

E)作结果状语:

He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces. 他把杯子掉了,结果摔得粉碎。

F)作目的状语:

He went swimming the other day. 几天前他去游泳了。

G)作让步状语:

Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon. 虽然雨下得很大,但不久天就晴了。

H)与逻辑主语构成独立主格:

I waiting for the bus, a bird fell on my head.我等汽车时,一只鸟落到我头上。

All the tickets having been sold out, they went away disappointedly.

所有的票已经卖光了,他们失望地离开了。

Time permitting, we’ll do another two exercises. 如果时间允许,我们将做另两个练习。

有时也可用with (without) +名词(代词宾格)+分词形式

With the lights burning, he fell asleep. 他点着灯睡着了。

H)作独立成分:

Judging from (by) his appearance, he must be an actor. 从外表看,他一定是个演员。

Generally speaking, girls are more careful. 一般说来,女孩子更细心。

(三)过去分词:

过去分词只有一种形式:规则动词由动词原形加词尾-ed构成。不规则动词的过去分词没有统一的规则要求,要一一记住。

过去分词的句法功能:

1、作定语:

I don't like the book written by Martin.

Our class went on an organized trip last Monday. 上周一我们班开展了一次有组织的旅行。

Those elected as committee members will attend the meeting. 当选为委员的人将出席这次会。

注意当过去分词是单词时,一般用于名词前,如果是过去分词短语,就放在名词的后面。过去分词做定语相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。

2、过去分词作表语:

They were very excited at the news.听到这个消息,他们非常激动。

The window is broken. 窗户破了。

They were frightened at the sad sight. 他们对眼前悲惨的景象感到很害怕。

注意be + 过去分词,如果表示状态是系表结构,如果表示被动的动作是被动语态。区别:

The window is broken.(系表)

The window was broken by the boy.(被动)

有些过去分词是不及物动词构成的,不表示被动,只表示完成。如:

boiled water(开水)

fallen leaves(落叶)

newly arrived goods(新到的货)

the risen sun(升起的太阳)

the changed world(变了的世界)

这类过去分词有:gone, come, fallen, risen, changed, arrived, returned, passed等。

3、过去分词作宾语补足语:

I heard the song sung several times last week. 上周我听见这首歌被唱了好几次。

有时过去分词做with短语中的宾语补足语:

With the work done, they went out to play. 工作做完了,他们出去玩去了。

4、过去分词作状语:

Praised by the neighbours, he became the pride of his parents.

受到邻居们的表扬,他成为父母的骄傲。(表示原因)

Once seen, it can never be forgotten. 一旦它被看见,人们就忘不了。(表示时间)

Given more time, I’ll be able to do it better. 如果给予更多的时间,我能做得更好。(表示条件)

Though told of the danger, he still risked his life to save the boy.

虽然被告之危险,他仍然冒生命危险去救那个孩子。(表示让步)

Filled with hopes and fears, he entered the cave. 心中充满了希望与恐惧,他走进山洞。

5、过去分词与逻辑主语构成独立主格:

All books returned at the end of the term, the library assistant was satisfied.

所有的书期末时都还了,图书管理员很高兴。

The field ploughed, he began to spread seed.地耕好了,他开始撒种子。

三、现在分词与过去分词的区别:

1. 作表语

分词做表语有两种情况,一种是现在分词做表语,一种是过去分词做表语,这两者区别是考试中经常考到的地方。一般来说,表示心理状态的动词如excite, interest等都是及物动词,汉语意思不是“激动”,“高兴”,而是“使激动”、“使高兴”,因而现在分词应该是“令人激动的”、“令人高兴的”,过去分词则是“感到激动的”和“感到高兴的”。所以,凡表示“令人……的”都是-ing形式,凡是表示“感到……”都用-ed形式。换句话说,若人对……感兴趣,就是somebody is interested in...,若人/物本身有兴趣时,就是说sb./sth. is interesting.这类词常见的有:

interesting使人感到高兴--interested感到高兴的

exciting令人激动的--excited感到激动的

delighting令人高兴的--delighted感到高兴的

disappointing令人失望的--disappointed感到失望的

encouraging令人鼓舞的--encouraged感到鼓舞的

pleasing令人愉快的--pleased感到愉快的

puzzling令人费解的--puzzled感到费解的

satisfying令人满意的---satisfied感到满意的

surprising令人惊异的--surprised感到惊异的

worrying令人担心的--worried感到担心的

Travelling is interesting but tiring.旅行是有趣的,但是使人疲劳。

The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much.

如果要学生学得太多,他们会感到糊涂的。

The game is exciting. (现在分词作表语)

We were excited at the news. (过去分词作表语)

2. 分词作定语

分词作定语时有下面几个特点:

1)现在分词表示主动意义,过去分词一般表示被动含意。

2)现在分词表示正在进行,过去分词表示状态或做完(完成)的事。

He rushed into the burning house.他冲进了正在燃烧着的房子。

The child standing over there is my brother.站在那儿的男孩子是我弟弟。

The room facing south is our classroom.朝南的房间是我们的教室。

He is an advanced teacher.他是个先进教师。

3)下列不及物动词也以过去分词形式做定语或表语,但不具有被动意义,这点要注意:

departed,  elapsed,  faded,  fallen,  gone,  frown-up,  retired,

returned,  risen,   set,    vanished, much-traveled,

newly-arrived,     recently-come

3. 分词作状语

现在分词做状语与过去分词做状语的最主要区别在于两者与所修饰的主语的主动与被动关系的区别。

1)现在分词作状语时,现在分词的动作就是句子主语的动作,它们之间的关系是主动关系。

He went out shutting the door behind him.   他出去后将门随手关上。

Not knowing what to do, he went to his parents for help.

由于不知如何办是好,他去找父母帮忙。

Smiling, they came in.

2)过去分词作状语时,过去分词表示的动作是句子主语承受的动作,它们之间的关系是被动关系。

Cleaned, the room looks nice.

Given more attention, the trees could have grown better.

如果对这些树多关心一些,它们本来会长得更好。

Faced with difficulties, we must try to overcome them.

在遇到困难的时候,我们必须设法克服。

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