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2018年5月翻译资格考试三级笔译真题

发布时间:2020-09-15 18:10:57 来源:网络 阅读量:

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2018年5月翻译资格考试三级笔译真题

原文:

Improved human well-being is one of the greatest triumphs of the modern era. The age of plenty has also led to an unexpected global health crisis: 2 bllion people are either overweight or obese. Developed countries have been especially susceptible to unhealthy weight gain. However, developing countries are now facing a similar crisis. Obesity rates have peaked in high income countries but are accelerating elsewhere. The combined findings of the World Health Organization and the World Bank showed that in 2016 Asia was home to half the world's overweight children. One quarter were in Africa. This crisis will test the political resolve of governments that have focused on ending hunger. These govermments must understand that the factors making cities convenient and productive also make their residents prone to obesity. Urbanites enjoy a variety of foods. International fast food chains are flourishing in developing countries. The health risks of such diets are compounded by the sedentary lifestyles of urban dwellers. People's leisure time is also being occupied by television, movies, and video games in a growing number of households.

The alarming implication of these trends is that developing countries may become sick before they get rich. That sickness may, in turn, cripple health systems. The yearly healthcare costs in Southeast Asia from obesity-related complications like diabetes and cardiovascular disease are already as high as $10 bllion. Such diseases are an added burden on countries already struggling to manage primary health care needs. Policies related to taxation, urban design, and education may help control obesity at a lower cost than eventual medical treatment for an increasingly overweight population. Some governments have already intervened to control obesity by implementing taxation on unhealthy foods and drinks. Thailand, Brunei, and Singapore have adopted the soda tax. South Africa is likely to introduce a sugar tax beginning in April 2018. The city of Berkeley in California recognizes that taxes alone are not enough to address obesity. The city's sugar tax revenues are used to support child nutrition and community health programs. This underscores the importance of education.

There is also promise in many initiatives. Urban design holds significant power to reshape lifestyles and public health. Improving the attractiveness of public space can draw residents out of their cars and living rooms. A recent study of urban neighborhoods in Shanghai and Hangzhou found that residents living in more walkable neighborhoods enjoy better health than residents who lived in less walkable neighborhoods in urban China. Finally, healthier lifestyles begin in grocery store aisles. Governments should encourage tighter connections between agricultural production systems, urban grocers and food vendors. Such initiatives can also help urban residents better understand how food is sourced. This raises awareness about the relationship between natural foods and healthy lifestyles. Combining controls on unhealthy foods with policies that encourage healthy eating and active lifestyles can reduce obesity rates. Improving public health is an important policy developing countries should take from both an economic and social point of view. To quote the recent Global Nutrition Report, reducing obesity will boost global development.

翻译:

Improved human well-being is one of the greatest triumphs of the modern era. The age of plenty has also led to an unexpected global health crisis: 2 bllion people are either overweight or obese. Developed countries have been especially susceptible to unhealthy weight gain. However, developing countries are now facing a similar crisis. Obesity rates have peaked in high income countries but are accelerating elsewhere. The combined findings of the World Health Organization and the World Bank showed that in 2016 Asia was home to half the world's overweight children. One quarter were in Africa. This crisis will test the political resolve of governments that have focused on ending hunger. These govermments must understand that the factors making cities convenient and productive also make their residents prone to obesity. Urbanites enjoy a variety of foods. International fast food chains are flourishing in developing countries. The health risks of such diets are compounded by the sedentary lifestyles of urban dwellers. People's leisure time is also being occupied by television, movies, and video games in a growing number of households.

人类健康的改善是当今时代最伟大的成就之一。物质丰富的时代也带来一场意想不到的全球健康危机:20亿人超重或肥胖。发达国家受这种不健康的体重增加的影响特别大。然而,发展中国家现在正面临一场类似的危机。在高收入国家,肥胖率已经达到高峰,但在其他地方,肥胖率正加速攀升。世界卫生组织和世界银行的联合调查结果显示,2016年,全球的超重儿童有一半在亚洲,四分之一在非洲。这场危机对于政府着力消除饥饿的政治决心,将会是个考验。这些政府必须明白,使城市变得便利和高效的因素也容易使城市居民罹患肥胖。都市人享受着各种美食选择。国际快餐连锁店正在发展中国家蓬勃发展。城市居民久坐的生活方式更是加剧了这种饮食结构的健康风险。在越来越多的家庭里,人们的闲暇时间也正在被电视、电影和电子游戏等所占据。

The alarming implication of these trends is that developing countries may become sick before they get rich. That sickness may, in turn, cripple health systems. The yearly healthcare costs in Southeast Asia from obesity-related complications like diabetes and cardiovascular disease are already as high as $10 bllion. Such diseases are an added burden on countries already struggling to manage primary health care needs. Policies related to taxation, urban design, and education may help control obesity at a lower cost than eventual medical treatment for an increasingly overweight population. Some governments have already intervened to control obesity by implementing taxation on unhealthy foods and drinks. Thailand, Brunei, and Singapore have adopted the soda tax. South Africa is likely to introduce a sugar tax beginning in April 2018. The city of Berkeley in California recognizes that taxes alone are not enough to address obesity. The city's sugar tax revenues are used to support child nutrition and community health programs. This underscores the importance of education.

这些趋势带来的触目惊心的后果是,发展中国家可能会未富先病。而接下来,疾病可能还会重创医疗系统。东南亚每年用来治疗糖尿病和心血管疾病等与肥胖相关的并发症的医疗费用已经高达100亿美元。这些疾病对于那些已经难以应对基本医疗保健需求的国家来说是一种额外的负担。相比最终为超重比例越来越高的人群提供医疗而言,税收、城市规划以及教育相关的政策或许可以以更低的成本来控制肥胖问题。一些政府已经开始通过对不健康的食物和饮料征税来干预控制肥胖。泰国、文莱和新加坡都开征了碳酸饮料税。南非可能从2018年4月开始征收糖税。加利福尼亚州伯克利市认识到,单凭税收不足以解决肥胖问题。该市将食用糖税收用于支持儿童营养和社区健康计划。这凸显了教育的重要性。

There is also promise in many initiatives. Urban design holds significant power to reshape lifestyles and public health. Improving the attractiveness of public space can draw residents out of their cars and living rooms. A recent study of urban neighborhoods in Shanghai and Hangzhou found that residents living in more walkable neighborhoods enjoy better health than residents who lived in less walkable neighborhoods in urban China. Finally, healthier lifestyles begin in grocery store aisles. Governments should encourage tighter connections between agricultural production systems, urban grocers and food vendors. Such initiatives can also help urban residents better understand how food is sourced. This raises awareness about the relationship between natural foods and healthy lifestyles. Combining controls on unhealthy foods with policies that encourage healthy eating and active lifestyles can reduce obesity rates. Improving public health is an important policy developing countries should take from both an economic and social point of view. To quote the recent Global Nutrition Report, reducing obesity will boost global development.

很多倡议也令人看到了希望。城市规划对重塑生活方式和公共健康具有重要影响力。提高公共空间的吸引力可以吸引居民走出他们的汽车和客厅。最近对上海和杭州城区进行的一项研究发现,生活在中国城市步行条件较好的街区的居民比居住在步行条件较差的街区的居民更健康。最后,更健康的生活方式始于杂货店街道。政府应鼓励加强农业生产体系、城市杂货商和食品商贩之间的联系。这些做法也可以帮助城市居民更好地了解食品是如何采购的,提高对天然食品和健康生活方式之间关系的认识。限制不健康的食品,并实施鼓励健康饮食和积极生活方式的政策,可以降低肥胖率。从经济和社会的角度来看,改善公共健康是发展中国家应采取的一项重要政策。用最近发表的《全球营养报告》(Global Nutrition Report)中的一句话来说,减少肥胖将促进全球发展。

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